Rendering McAfee web protection ineffective

Posted on by Wladimir Palant

Now that I’m done with Kaspersky, it’s time to look at some other antivirus software. Our guest today is McAfee Total Protection 16.0. Let’s say this up front: it’s nowhere near the mess we’ve seen with Kaspersky. It doesn’t break up your encrypted connections, and the web protection component is limited to the McAfee WebAdvisor browser extension. So the attack surface is quite manageable here. The extension also uses native messaging to communicate with the application, so we won’t see websites taking over this communication channel.

Of course, browser extensions claiming to protect you from online threats have some rather big shoes to fill. They have to be better than the browser’s built-in malware and phishing protection, not an easy task. In fact, McAfee WebAdvisor “blocks” malicious websites after they already started loading, this being not quite optimal but rather typical for this kind of extension. I also found three issues in the way McAfee WebAdvisor 6.0 was implemented which made its protection far less reliable than it should be.

Rusty WebAdvisor shield

Summary of the findings

A bug in the way McAfee WebAdvisor deals with malicious frames made it trivial for websites to avoid blocking. Also, I found ways for websites to unblock content programmatically, both for top-level and frame-level blocking (CVE-2019-3665).

In fact, the way unblocking top-level content was implemented, it allowed arbitrary websites to open special pages (CVE-2019-3666). Browsers normally prevent websites from opening these pages to avoid phishing attacks or exploitation of potential security vulnerabilities in browser extensions. McAfee WebAdvisor allowed websites to circumvent this security mechanism.

Breaking frame blocking

Let’s say that somebody hacked a benign website. However, they don’t want this website with a good reputation to be blacklisted, so instead of putting malicious code onto this website directly they add a frame pointing to a less valuable website, one that is already known to be malicious. Let’s go with malware.wicar.org here which is a test site meant to trigger warnings.

McAfee WebAdvisor won’t allow this of course:

Frame blocked by McAfee Web Advisor along with a message allowing it to be unblocked

The frame will be blocked and the user will be informed about it. Nice feature? It is, at least until you look at the Network tab of the Inspector Tools.

Network tab of the Inspector Tools showing that malicious frame loaded before being replaced

So the malicious document actually managed to load fully and was only replaced by restricted.html after that. So there was a window of opportunity for it to do its malicious thing. But that’s not actually the worst issue with this approach.

Replacing frame document is being done by the extension’s content script. In order to make a decision, that content script sends the message isframeblocked to the background page. If the frame should be blocked, the response will contain a redirect URL. Not quite trusting the whole thing, the content script will perform an additional check:

processFrameBlocking(redirectURI) {
  const domain = URI.getParam(redirectURI, "domain");
  if (null !== domain) {
    const documentURI = document.documentURI || document.URL || document.baseURI;
    if (unescape(domain) === documentURI)
      window.location.replace(redirectURI);
  }
}

So the redirect is only performed if the document URL matches the domain parameter of the redirect URL. I guess that this is supposed to protect against the scenario where the message exchange was too slow and a benign page loaded into the frame in the meantime. Not that this could actually happen, as this would have replaced the content script by a new instance.

Whatever the reasoning, there are obvious drawbacks: while domain parameter is a URL rather than actually being a domain, it won’t always match the frame URL exactly. In particular, it is missing the query part of the URL. So all one has to do is using a URL with a query for the frame:

<iframe src="http://malware.wicar.org/?whatever"></iframe>

That’s it. There will still be a warning at the top of the page but the frame will no longer be “blocked.”

McAfee WebAdvisor 8.0 fixes this issue. While it didn’t remove the check, the full URL is being compared now. A downside remains: due to the messaging delay here, a page changing its URL regularly (easily done without reloading the content) will never be blocked.

Messing with the warning message

Of course, there is no reason why anybody needs to allow this message on their website. It’s being injected directly into the page, and so the page can hide it trivially:

<style>
  #warning_banner
  {
    display: none;
  }
</style>

That’s not something that the extension can really prevent however. Even if hiding the message via CSS weren’t possible, a web page can always detect this element being added and simply remove it.

That “View all blocked content” button being injected into the web page is more interesting. What will happen if the page “clicks” it programmatically?

function clickButton()
{
  var element = document.getElementById("show_all_content");
  if (element)
    element.click();
  else
    window.setTimeout(clickButton, 0);
}

window.addEventListener("load", clickButton, false);

Oh, that actually unblocks the frame without requiring any user interaction. And it will add it to the whitelist permanently as well. So the extension doesn’t even check for event.isTrusted to ignore generated events.

As of McAfee WebAdvisor 8.0, this part of the user interface is isolated inside a frame and cannot be manipulated by websites directly. It’s still susceptible to clickjacking attacks however, something that’s hard to avoid.

Exploiting siteadvisor.com integration

We previously talked about frame blocking functionality redirecting frames to restricted.html. If you assumed that this page is part of the extension, then I’m sorry to tell you that you assumed incorrectly. For whatever reason, this is a page hosted on siteadvisor.com. It’s also the same page you will see when you try to visit malware.wicar.org yourself, it will merely look somewhat differently:

McAfee replacement page for a malicious website

The button “Accept the Risk” it worth noticing. Implementing this functionality requires modifying extension settings, something that the website cannot do by itself. How does it work? This is the button’s HTML code:

<a id="DontWarn" class="button" href="javascript:acceptrisk()">Accept the Risk</a>

So it calls the JavaScript function acceptrisk() which is being injected into its scope by the extension. What does the function look like?

function acceptrisk()
{
  window.postMessage({type: 'acceptrisk'}, '*');
}

The website sends a message to itself. That message is then processed by the extension’s content script. And it doesn’t bother checking message origin of course, meaning that the same message could be sent by another website just as well.

Usually, a website would exploit an issue like this by loading siteadvisor.com in a frame and sending a message to it. The HTTP header X-Frame-Options: sameorigin doesn’t prevent the attack here because siteadvisor.com doesn’t apply it consistently. While it is being sent with some responses, images from this domain for example are allowed to load in frames. There is another issue however: the relevant content script only applies to top-level documents, not frames.

Fallback approach: pop-up window. Open a pop-up with the right parameters, then send it a message (or rather lots of messages, so that you don’t have to guess the timing).

let wnd = window.open("https://www.siteadvisor.com/img/wa-logo.png?originalURL=12345678&domain=http://malware.wicar.org/", "_blank");
for (let i = 0; i < 10000; i += 100)
{
  window.setTimeout(() =>
  {
    wnd.postMessage({type: "acceptrisk"}, "*");
  }, i);
}

Done, this will add malware.wicar.org to the WebAdvisor whitelist and redirect to it.

There is an additional twist here: the redirect is being performed by the browser extension via chrome.tabs.update() call. The URL isn’t checked at all, anything goes – even URLs that websites normally cannot navigate to. Well, almost anything, Chrome doesn’t allow using javascript: will this API.

Chrome disallowed top-level data: URLs to combat phishing? No problem, websites can still do it with the help from the McAfee WebAdvisor extension. file:/// URLs out of reach for websites? Extensions are still allowed to load them. Extension pages are not web accessible to prevent exploitation of potential security issues? But other extensions can load them regardless.

So this vulnerability has quite some potential to facilitate further attacks. And while checking message origin is the obvious solution here, this attack surface is completely unnecessary. An extension can attach a click event listener to that button, no need to inject functions or pass messages around. An even better solution would be making that page part of the extension and dropping special handling of any web pages.

As of McAfee WebAdvisor 8.0, the pages displayed when some content is blocked belong to the extension. The problematic integration with siteadvisor.com is gone, it is no longer necessary.

Timeline

  • 2019-09-02: Tried following the official process to report McAfee security vulnerabilities, mail didn’t trigger the expected automatic response.
  • 2019-09-02: Sent three vulnerability reports to security@mcafee.com. The mails bounced with “Invalid Recipient” response.
  • 2019-09-02: Attempted to access https://mcafee.com/security.txt which redirected to a 404 Not Found error.
  • 2019-09-02: Asked for help reporting these vulnerabilities on Twitter.
  • 2019-09-02: Got contacted by a McAfee employee via direct message on Twitter, he notified somebody within the company.
  • 2019-09-03: Got an email from the right contact at McAfee, sent them the three vulnerability reports.
  • 2019-09-03: Received confirmation from McAfee that the reports have been received and are being investigated.
  • 2019-09-06: McAfee confirmed all reports as security vulnerabilities.
  • 2019-11-20: McAfee notified me about the issues being resolved.

Comments

There are currently no comments on this article.

Comment

Enter your comment below.


Only if you want to be notified about my reply.


You can use Markdown syntax here.

By submitting your comment, you agree to your comment being published here under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.